Ancient Diocese of Chalon-sur-Saône

The former French Catholic diocese of Chalon-sur-Saône (Lat.: dioecesis Cabilonensis) existed until the French Revolution. After the Concordat of 1801, it was suppressed, and its territory went to the diocese of Autun. Its see was Chalon Cathedral.

Julius Caesar first mentions Cabillonum in his Gallic Wars. Later it is said to be an oppidum or castrum. It was a civitas of the Burgundians. Chalon was not made a city, separate and distinct from Autun, until the fifth century, and it is probably as a consequence of this development that a bishop, Paul (I.), first appears. The first Christians in the neighborhood are said to have been a priest of Lyon named Marcellus, who was imprisoned by the Roman government along with other Christians of Lyon and their bishop, Pothinus, ca. 177 in the reign of Marcus Aurelius (161-180). The rest were executed, but Marcellus, eschewing martyrdom, managed to break out of prison and escape north along the Saône river, first to Tournus and then to Chalon. There he was taken in by a pagan, whom he converted to Christianity. Leaving Chalon, Marcellus encountered the provincial governor, who invited him to a celebration in his residence. When the governor began the celebration with an appropriate sacrifice, Marcellus excused himself on the grounds that he was a Christian; the governor ordered him to participate in the sacrifice, and Marcellus refused. This constituted refusal to obey a legitimate order bottled glass water, and, since prayer to the members of the Imperial Cult was involved, refusal constituted treason (laesa majestas) as well. The governor is said to have had Marcellus buried up to his waist on the bank of the Saône, where he died three days later. The method of death may be shocking, but Marcellus was a prison escapee, who refused a patriotic sacrifice, and disobeyed a Roman governor

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. Christians made him into a martyr.

Bishop Flavius is credited with the foundation of the monastery of S. Pierre, just north of Chalon, in 584. It was destroyed by the Arabs in the 8th century, and rebuilt by Bishop Gerboldus, ca. 887 as a Benedictine monastery. The monastery was attacked by the Huguenots in 1562 and despoiled, and the monks were driven out. King Charles IX turned the monastic buildings into a fortress in 1566 and paid the monks an annual pension in recompense.

Bishop Lupus (ca. 600), in a Life otherwise devoid of facts, is credited with founding a school for the study of the scriptures. By the time of Bishop Guillaume de Bellevesure (1294 – 1301), schools were to be found not just in Chalon, but also in towns and villages of the diocese.

The original cathedral of Chalon was dedicated to Saint Étienne. In 541 King Childebert presented the cathedral with relics purported to be those of Saint Vincent of Saragossa, in whose honor the name of the cathedral was changed. That cathedral was destroyed by the Arabs in the 8th century, and rebuilt by Charlemagne. It was in that church that the Council of 813 was held. In 1310 extensive repairs were necessary, and Bishop Robert de Decize taxed every curé in the diocese the sum of its first year’s income upon entry into office to pay for the works. This tax was imposed for ten years. Bishop Nicolas de Vères completed two vaults of the choir in 1386. Bishop Hugues d’Orges erected the third vault, and Bishop Jean d’Arsonval the fourth and fifth, with contributions from the Chapter and the people. The consecration took place in 1403 by Bishop Olivier de Matreuil. The cathedral was severely damaged by the Huguenots in 1562.

The Cathedral was served by a Chapter, which was composed of dignities and canons. There were seven dignities at Chalon: the Dean, the Cantor, the Treasurer (who were elected by the whole Chapter), and the four Archdeacons (who were appointed by the bishop). There were once thirty canons, but the number was reduced to twenty in 1218. In 1327 the number was set at twenty-five.In 1648 there were twenty-four Canons. In 1772 the number was twenty. All the cathedral chapters in France were abolished by the Constituent Assembly on 13 February 1790.

There was also a Collegiate Church in the city of Chalon, dedicated to Saint George. Saint George had originally been a parish church, under the control of the monastery of Saint Pierre. It escaped the fire which destroyed most of the town during the siege of 834, but in 1323 it became a collegiate church with twelve canons. It was served by a Chapter composed of a Dean, a Cantor, a Sacristan, and thirteen prebends. The bishop has the right to confirm the election to vacant canonries. One of the canons was assigned the task of being the priest of the parish.

The abbey of Saint Marcellus (Marcel) was founded by King Guntram of Burgundy (561–592), where he completed a church in 577, and in which he was buried. The abbey was ruined by the Arabs in the 8th century, and again in the 10th century. When the Counts of Chalon became abbots commendatory, it recovered its prestige and financial status. The counts ceded their rights to the Abbey of Cluny, when then became one of their priories. Peter Abelard spent his final months at the priory of St. Marcel, where he died on 21 April 1142. His body was interred there for a time, but secretly moved to the nunnery of the Paraclete and the care of Abbess Héloïse.

A council of the church was held at Chalons c. 470, under the leadership of the Metropolitan, Bishop Patiens of Lyon, to elect a successor to the deceased Paul of Chalon. In the midst of party strife, the bishops fastened on Joannes and made him bishop.

In 579 a council was summoned at Chalon by King Guntram to deal with Bishop Salonius of Embrun and Bishop Sagittarius of Gap, who had already been condemned in the second synod of Lyon on charges of adultery and homicide.

In 603 a council was held at Chalon, in which, at the instigation of Queen Brunhilda of Austrasia, Bishop Desiderius of Vienne was deposed and exiled.

Around the year 650 thirty-eight bishops met in council at Chalon, among whom was Bishop Gratus of Chalon. The council produced some twenty decisions (canons). Bishops Agapius of Digne and Bobo of Valence were degraded from the episcopal order for disregarding church canons. In 674 Bishop Desideratus (Diddo) of Chalon and the deposed bishop Bobo of Valence attacked Autun and seized Bishop Leger, their enemy, who had led a revolt of the Burgundian nobility against Ebroin, Mayor of the Palace of Neustria. They blinded him on orders of Ebroin, and held him in a monastery for two years, at which point they cut off his ears and cut out his tongue; after two more years, they killed him.

In 732 Chalons was captured and held by the Arabs of Spain, led by Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi, Governor-General of al-Andalus, until after their defeat by Charles Martel at the Battle of Tours.

A provincial council of Tertia Lugdunensis was held at Chalon in 813. It produced sixty-six canons. Among the most important was the requirement of the establishment of a school in each cathedral, in which reading and writing and the scriptures would be taught.

In 875 an assembly of bishops, led by Archbishop Remigius of Lyon, took place at Chalon at the church of S. Marcellus for the consecration of Adalgerius as Bishop of Autun. They then met and confirmed the properties belonging to the monastery of Tournus. Gerboldus Bishop of Chalon was present buy goalkeeper gloves.

In 887 nine archbishops and bishops, Bishop Stephen of Chalon among them, met at the church of Saint Marcellus outside the walls of Chalon, to deal with property issues of churches and villas involving the bishop of Langres.

In 894 three bishops, headed by Bishop Gualo of Autun and including Ardradus of Chalon, met at the church of S. John the Baptist outside the walls of Chalon, to settle the case of the monk and Deacon Gerfredus of Autun, who had been accused of poisoning Bishop Adalgarus of Autun. Gerfredus was able to demonstrate his innocence by taking an oath and receiving holy communion, and was purged of the charge by all of the bishops.

On 31 October 915 seven bishops met under the presidency of Austerius, Archbishop of Lyon, at the church of S. Marcellus outside the walls of Chalon to deal with the case of Roculsus, Count of Mâcon, who was threatened with excommunication for his refusal to respect various properties belonging to the church. They also dealt with a dispute between two priests over a parish church which was being usurped. Bishop Ardradus participated.

A council was held at Chalon by the papal Apocrisiarius Aldebrannus (Hildebrand) in 1065, to adjudge the ownership of the church of Spinola. The Bishop of Chalon Guido (Wido) was present.

A council was held at Chalon by Cardinal Peter Damiani, the Papal Legate, and thirteen bishops in 1063 in the reign of Pope Alexander II. Bishop Drogo of Mâcon had violated the privileges of the monastery of Cluny, and Abbot Hugh had gone to Rome and complained. The council found in favor of Cluny, and Bishop Drogo was compelled to beg pardon.

In 1115 a council was held at Tournus in the diocese of Chalon, presided over by Archbishop Guy of Vienne, the Papal Legate, at which Bishop Gualterius was present. The issue was a conflict between the two Collegiate Churches of Besançon, Saint John and Saint Stephen. Pope Paschal II had previously committed the case to Archbishop Guillaume of Besançon, who was unable to bring the two parties to agreement.

In July 1348 the bubonic plague reached Chalon. The mortality rate, at least in some sections of the diocese, is recorded at fifteen times the normal death rate.

Bishop Cyrus de Thiard de Bissy was particularly favorable to the religious orders. He brought the Franciscans to Chalon in 1598, the Capuchins in 1604, the Carmelites in 1610, and the Dominicans in 1621. Efforts to bring the Jesuits to Chalon also began in the time of Bishop Cyrus, but the impetus came from the town council

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, which was eager to upgrade the quality of the Collège de Chalon. In 1608 the project was discussed, but the stumbling block was financial. The establishment of a Jesuit college in Autun kindled local patriotism, led by the Sieur de Pontoux who was serving as Mayor, and a committee of lawyers was appointed to try to obtain a royal brevet, which, succeeded, but this second project also failed for financial reasons. In 1618 yet another attempt was made under a new mayor, Sieur Mathieu, who convinced the town council to begin by consulting the Jesuit Provincial in Dijon, Fr. Ignace Armand. The Provincial sent an agent to Chalon to preach a series of sermons, and also to investigate the situation. Their conclusion was that the revenues were inadequate. Then, in 1618, it was learned that the Baron de Huxelles was willing to resign his benefice of the Priory of Saint-Marcel, and the town officials considered whether it could be handed over to the Jesuits. But the Baron’s brother intervened, and one of the town councilors was opposed, and the project failed. In 1626 the Marquis de Huxelles inspired the convocation of a general assembly of the burghers and citizens of Chalon to provide the needed funds, but an opposition party proposed the introduction of the Oratorians instead, and nothing was accomplished. It was even questioned whether the assembly was legitimate. When the Prince de Condé obtained the government of Burgundy, he visited Chalons in December 1632, and ordered the Mayor to convoke an assembly, which he would attend personally. The opposition party, however, was able to speak to the Prince during a banquet given by Bishop de Neuchèze, which seriously upset the Prince, who left Chalon immediately. In June 1634, a new set of town officials was able to convince the Jesuit Provincial in Dijon, Fr. Filleau, as well as the Prince, that the arrangements were all in order, and on 26 June 1634 the contracts were finalized and the Jesuits placed in possession of the Collège de Chalon. They maintained the college until their exuplsion from France in 1762. In 1784 King Louis XVI handed over the Collège de Chalon to the priests of the Congrégation-Saint-Joseph. In February 1791, the oath of allegiance to the Civil Constitution of the Clergy was demanded, and the priests of the Collège de Chalon refused to take the oath, bringing about their dismissal. Agents of the municipality took their place.

In April 1635 Bishop de Neuchèze entertained in the episcopal palace for six days Zaga Christos, the (purported) twenty-two year old son of the Emperor of Ethiopia, who was on his way to the French Court.

In 1635 a pestilence struck Chalon and all of Provence. The house of the Franciscans in Chalon was very severely hit, and they were helped by a Capuchin, Fr. Mathias de Beaune, who had been sent after an appeal from the magistrates of Chalon. The unhappiness of the population was increased by the end of the siege of Dôle, which let loose on the countryside numbers of marauders who burned villages and robbed everyone and everything. In the same year the government demanded the registration of all adherents of the Protestant religion, and with the agreement of the Prince of Condé and Bishop de Neuchèze this was begun. Feeling ran so high in Chalon that the ‘temple’ of the Huguenots was burned to the ground.

In 1790 the Civil Constitution of the Clergy abolished (suppressed) more than fifty ‘redundant’ dioceses in France, as part of an effort to align the ecclesiastical dioceses in France with new political divisions called ‘departements’. Chalon-sur-Saône became part of the ‘Departement de Saône-et-Loire’, with its headquarters at Autun, and was part of the ‘Metropole du Sud-Est’ with its headquarters at Lyon. On 15 February 1791 the ‘electors’ of Saône-et-Loire chose Jean-Louis Gouttes as their ‘Constitutional Bishop’. He was executed during the Reign of Terror on 26 March 1794, shortly after Religion had been abolished in France and replaced by Reason.

On 29 November 1801, Pope Pius VII reestablished the dioceses of France, but Chalon was not one of them. Chalon remained part of the diocese of Autun, with Lyon as its Metropolitan. In 1853, the Bishop of Autun was granted the title of Bishop of Autun-Châlon-sur-Saône-Mâcon, in memory of the suppressed dioceses, and on 8 December 2002, as part of a general reorganization of the ecclesiastical map of France, Pope John Paul II created a new archdiocese at Dijon, and made the diocese of Autun-Châlon-sur-Saône-Mâcon-Cluny its suffragan.

Vyacheslav Nagovitsyn

Vyacheslav Vladimirovich Nagovitsyn (Russian: Вячесла́в Влади́мирович Нагови́цын; Buryat: Вячеслаав Наговиицын, Wyaçĭesláw Nagowícïn); born March 2, 1956 in Glazov depiller for sweaters, Udmurt ASSR, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union) is the former Head of the Republic of Buryatia, a federal subject of Russia. He held the office from July 10, 2007 to February 7, 2017. Nagovitsyn is a member of the United Russia party and resigned from office after he decided against running for a third term.

Nagovitsyn was born in Glazov, a village in Udmurtia. He spent most of his life in Tomsk. In 1978, he graduated from Tomsk Polytechnical Institute, specialising in Mechanical Engineering sale jerseys. He had, during university, received higher education in economics. Nagovistyn took a series of low paying jobs until he was employed as an engineer. In 1986 he was appointed as the chief engineer of a factory in Tomsk, later becoming the general director. He began his political career in December 1999, when he became Mayor of Tomsk for a short period of time. Since 2002 he has been the Chairman of the Co-ordination Council Forestry and Agriculture. In 2007 he was nominated and elected president of Buryatia.

He is married and has two sons and one daughter. He also has two grandchildren.

Søbadeindretningen i Trondhjem


Søbadeindretningen i Trondhjem er et populært badested sentralt i Trondheim. Det ble stiftet i 1858 som aksjeselskap. Badet ble først etablert i indre kanal ved den nåværende Fløttmann-bryggen. På grunn av forurensning i kanalen ble badet ca. 1880 flyttet til St. Olavs pir, hvor det befinner seg i dag. Det kalles nå Sjøbadet for at det ikke skal forveksles med det nye Pirbadet.

Ved slutten av 1970-tallet var hovedbygningen i sterkt forfall, og driften gikk med underskudd clothing shaver. Styret valgte derfor å utvide aksjekapitalen med 100 aksjer á 250 kroner thermos plastic water bottle. I tillegg fikk man støtte fra Trondheim kommune og enkelte andre institusjoner, slik at det ble mulig å reise en ny hovedbygning med garderober, dusj og toalett. I 2003 ble det lagt ut 50 nye aksjer á kr. 1000,ø som ble tegnet. Med god støtte fra kommunen ble det mulig å rehabilitere både brygge og stupetårn how to use a meat tenderizer.

Badet fremstår nå i bedre stand enn noensinne.

Sjøbadets formann var fram til 2009 siviløkonom Odd Gunnar Eikrem.

Monte Spico

Il Monte Spico (2.517 m s.l.m. – Speikboden in tedesco) è un monte appartenente ai monti Alti Tauri Occidentali, più precisamente ai monti di Fundres custom team uniforms, alto 2.517 metri, situato fra l’estremità sommitale della Valle della Selva dei Molini e di Rio Bianco.

Posizionata nell’estremità sudorientale della lunga cresta di Val di Selva, il Monte Spico Speikboden è una bella montagna, per lo più erbosa unusual football shirts, che permette dalla vetta un grande panorama sulla cresta principale delle Alpi Aurine.

Si parte dalla Michlreiser Alm (Malga Michele – m 1958), che può essere raggiunta con una cabinovia. Il tracciato segue per un breve tratto l’ampia carrareccia che volge a sinistra; poco oltre si passa sulla destra al sentiero vero e proprio che sale tra ripide balze erbose (segnavia 27). Si passa presso il piccolo laghetto Seelein (m 2280) per poi guadagnare il crinaletto discendente dalla cima. Si risale verso destra con qualche facile roccetta; passando prima per un’anticima, si è infine sulla sommità del Monte Spico (2517 m – ore 1,30 dalla partenza). Da notare il maestoso e imponente panorama sulla catena principale delle Alpi Aurine e in particolar modo sul Sasso Nero. L’escursione prosegue mantenendo il crinale sino al bivio dove si passa a destra (segnavia 18). Sempre in cresta, si procede su tracciato facile e ben ricavato tra i massi con deboli saliscendi. Valichiamo diverse forcelle e alcuna sommità tra le quali spiccano il Monte Seewassernock (2433 m) e il Dosso Grande (2400 m). A sinistra si sovrasta ora la profonda valle di Rio Bianco. Poco oltre si trova, sulla destra waist running belt, la traccia ben marcata ma non segnata che cala rapidamente, tra i mirtilleti, sino alla carrareccia utilizzata per la manutenzione degli impianti sciistici. Seguendola verso sinistra si rinetra in breve alla Michlreiser Alm (ore 2,30 / 3 complessive).

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Wisner Township, Michigan

Wisner Township is a civil township of Tuscola County in the U.S. state of Michigan. The population was 749 at the 2000 census.

The first land entries in this area were made by Joshua Terry in 1853, by Green Bird in 1854, and by Isaiah Jester in 1855. The township was first organized in 1861 and named after Moses Wisner, Governor of Michigan from 1859–1861.

According to the United States Census Bureau best water packs for running, the township has a total area of 25.6 square miles (66 km2), of which 19.4 square miles (50 km2) is land and 6.3 square miles (16 km2) (24.52%) is water.

As of the census of 2000, there were 749 people, 309 households, and 231 families residing in the township. The population density was 38.7 per square mile (14.9/km²). There were 368 housing units at an average density of 19.0 per square mile (7.3/km²). The racial makeup of the township was 97.20% White, 0.13% African American, 0.67% Native American, 0.13% Asian, 0.13% Pacific Islander, 0.53% from other races, and 1.20% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.07% of the population.

There were 309 households out of which 24.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 64.4% were married couples living together, 5.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 25.2% were non-families. 22 youth football uniforms wholesale.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 2.80.

In the township the population was spread out with 19.8% under the age of 18, 7.3% from 18 to 24, 25.5% from 25 to 44, 31.0% from 45 to 64, and 16.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 44 years. For every 100 females there were 109.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 110.1 males.

The median income for a household in the township was $35,250, and the median income for a family was $47 buy goalkeeper gloves,625. Males had a median income of $39,375 versus $25,625 for females. The per capita income for the township was $20,153. About 10.6% of families and 13.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.6% of those under age 18 and 4.7% of those age 65 or over.


Die Palmers Textil AG, bekannt als PALMERS, ist Österreichs größter Textilkonzern.

Das Palmers Sortiment umfasst Dessous, Bademode, Nachtwäsche, Loungewear, Strumpfware sowie modische Styles für den Mann von heute meat tenderizer alternative. Die Sparte für jüngere Kunden ist p2 bodywear. Im öffentlichen Raum fallen in Österreich die Poster und Plakate von weiblichen und auch männlichen Unterwäschemodels auf.

Es gibt knapp 300 Standorte, davon sind über 150 eigene Filialen in Österreich, Deutschland und Kroatien sowie ca. 150 Franchise-Partner national und international. Insgesamt beschäftigt Palmers über 700 Mitarbeiter. Im Dezember 2015 erwarb das Brüdertrio Marc costume football jerseys, Tino und Luca Wieser mit Unterstützung einer österreichischen Investorengruppe 100 Prozent des heimischen Wäschehändlers.

Das Unternehmen wurde 1914 von Ludwig Palmers gegründet, der in Innsbruck sein erstes Wäschegeschäft eröffnete.

Im Jahr 1936 wurde die erste von einem Franchisenehmer geführte Palmers-Verkaufsstelle eröffnet. Nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg startete die Expansion in ganz Österreich mit zunächst 45 Geschäften. Unter der Leitung von Walter Palmers (1903–1983) wurde das Familienunternehmen beträchtlich erweitert und ein flächendeckendes Filialnetz in Österreich aufgebaut. 1977 wurde Walter Palmers das Opfer einer Entführung. Die Entführung war eine Geldbeschaffungsaktion der Bewegung 2. Juni, durchgeführt von österreichischen Studenten. Walter Palmers wurde nach einer Lösegeldzahlung von 30,5 Millionen Schilling (2,2 Millionen Euro) wieder freigelassen, zwei der Terroristen wurden auf der Flucht über die Schweizer Grenze nach Italien in Chiasso verhaftet. Die von den Entführern in Wien gemietete Wohnung wurde am 20. April 1978 entdeckt best way to tenderize beef.

Rudolf Humer übernahm 1979 die Firmenleitung von Walter Palmers. Unter der Führung von Humer kam es in den 1980er und 1990er Jahren zu einer raschen Expansion des Unternehmens auch im Ausland. 2012 war das Unternehmen an 300&nbsp lemon press drink;Standorten in 15 europäischen Ländern vertreten.

Nach Meinungsverschiedenheiten zwischen den Eigentümern und den Vorständen kam es im Zuge von Sanierungsmaßnahmen zu einer deutlichen Verkleinerung des Unternehmens und Rudolf Humer verließ im Jahr 2003 den Unternehmensvorstand.

Im Herbst 2004 wurde die Palmers Textil AG großteils an die Investoren Quadriga Capital und Lead Equities verkauft. Der Immobilienbesitz der Palmersgruppe (in der Palmers AG gebündelt) wurde von Christian Palmers von den Aktionären übernommen.

Der Firmensitz befand sich seit 1982 in Wiener Neudorf und wurde teilweise im Juni 2014 in den Ares Tower nach Wien verlegt.

Die Brüder Marc, Tino und Luca Wieser erwarben am 15. Dezember 2015 mit Unterstützung einer österreichischen Investorengruppe 100 Prozent des Unternehmens.

Jakob Ejersbo

Jakob Ejersbo (6. april 1968 i Rødovre – 10. juli 2008 i Aalborg) var en dansk forfatter, som skrev brevromanen Fuga og novellesamlingen Superego, men fik sit endelige gennembrud med romanen Nordkraft (2002). Den indbragte ham De gyldne laurbær i 2003.

Jakob Ejersbo var uddannet journalist. Efter han fik sin HF-eksamen i 1988, boede han i Aalborg. Allerede som barn ville han være forfatter[Kilde mangler].

Jakob Ejersbo debuterede sammen med en ven med brevromanen Fuga. Novellesamlingen Superego kunne den unge forfatter dog ikke afsætte i lang tid, da flere forlag afviste ham. Til sidst fik han dog forlaget Gyldendal til at udgive Superego, som fik gode anmeldelser.

Ejersbo var repræsentant for den nye realisme, som fandt form op igennem 1990’erne. Som en anden af denne retnings hovedfigurer, Jan Sonnergaard, fokuserer Ejersbo på rodløse unge, misbrugere, arbejdsløse, mv., men helt uden Sonnergaards sarkastiske bid. I stedet lader han læseren fatte sympati for hovedpersonerne, trods deres åbenlyse svagheder. I den henseende er Ejersbos realisme psykologisk orienteret. Hvor Sonnergaard både dømmer og fordømmer, lader Ejersbo det være op til læseren at trække en lære ud af det skildrede.

Jakob Ejersbo døde på Aalborg Sygehus af kræft i spiserøret efter kun 10 måneders sygdom.

I 2013 rejste fem mænd til Tanzania for at bestige Kilimanjaro. Med sig havde de halvdelen af Jakob Ejersbos aske. Den anden halvdel var for længst blevet begravet på Assistens Kirkegård. Se også spillefilmen »Ejersbo« af Christian Holten Bonkes (2015) om denne, Ejersbos sidste rejse til toppen af Afrikas.

Efter successen med novellesamlingen begyndte han at skrive romanen Nordkraft.

Bogen blev en anmelderrost succes, hvor rosen bl.a. gik på godt indblik i det miljø han skriver om ud fra sin egen tid i Aalborg og gennem omfattende research, en metode han har brugt i arbejdet med alle sine romaner. [Kilde mangler]

I 2005 indspillede Ole Christian Madsen filmatiseringen af bogen Nordkraft stort set udelukkende med ukendte skuespillere, dog med Thure Lindhardt i hovedrollen.

Jakob Ejersbo nåede at skrive en trilogi om Afrika, som blev færdigredigeret af hans redaktør på Gyldendal, Johannes Riis efter hans død. Trilogien består af romanerne Eksil og Liberty custom football kits, samt fortællekredsen Revolution, der alle udkom i løbet af 2009 best designed water bottles. Bøgernes fortællinger har forskellige fortællere, men en stor del af personerne går igen som hoved- eller bipersoner i flere af fortællingerne. Mange af personerne er børn og unge, som har tilknytning til den internationale skole i Moshi, Tanzania. Forfatteren var hele livet stærkt påvirket af Tanzania, hvor han boede som barn og ung. Ejersbos familie kom til Tanzania første gang i 1974-76. Faderen arbejdede med udviklingsbistand betalt af den danske stat, og moderen hjalp til på hospitalet i Moshi. Som 13-årig i 1981 rejste Jakob Ejersbo tilbage til Tanzania og boede en overgang alene med sin far og gik i skole på Moshi International School. I denne periode blev han ven med en lokal dreng, Ali, der arbejdede for en svensk familie. De to hang blandt andet ud sammen på diskoteket Liberty cool soccer goalie jerseys. I slutningen af 80’erne kom Jakob Ejersbo på efterskole. Han tog HF i Danmark mens forældrene tog tilbage til Tanzania uden børn. I 2003 rejste Jakob Ejersbo tilbage til Afrika, og begyndte at researche målrettet med henblik på Afrika-trilogien.

Illustrationerne på trilogiens omslag er tegnet af Jakobs søster Ea Ejersbo. Illustrationen på den anden bog i trilogien, Revolution, viser en mand i sejrsposition med svulmende overarme og er inspireret af etiketten på den lokale Tanzanianske gin Konyagi, som sælges i små poser til 8 kroner stykket. Konyagi, og i det hele taget stoffer og spiritus, spiller en rolle i mange af hovedpersonernes liv. På omslaget til Liberty ses frihedsfaklen, Uhuru Torch, og på Eksil er det afrikanske kontinent forvandlet til et grinende dødningehoved.

Kredse i Aalborg ønskede i 2010, at byrådet navngav det nuværende Kjellerups Torv foran hovedindgangen til kulturhuset Nordkraft Jakob Ejersbos Plads.

Force dynamics

Force dynamics is a semantic category that describes the way in which entities interact with reference to force. Force Dynamics gained a good deal of attention in cognitive linguistics due to its claims of psychological plausibility and the elegance with which it generalizes ideas not usually considered in the same context. The semantic category of force dynamics pervades language on several levels. Not only does it apply to expressions in the physical domain like leaning on or dragging Stainless Steel Mug 12 oz, but it also plays an important role in expressions involving psychological forces (e.g. wanting or being urged). Furthermore, the concept of force dynamics can be extended to discourse. For example, the situation in which speakers A and B argue, after which speaker A gives in to speaker B, exhibits a force dynamic pattern.

Introduced by cognitive linguist Leonard Talmy in 1981, force dynamics started out as a generalization of the traditional notion of the causative, dividing causation into finer primitives and considering the notions of letting, hindering, and helping. Talmy further developed the field in his 1985, 1988 and 2000 works.

Talmy places force dynamics within the broader context of cognitive semantics. In his view, a general idea underlying this discipline is the existence of a fundamental distinction in language between closed-class (grammatical) and open-class (lexical) categories. This distinction is motivated by the fact that language uses certain categories of notions to structure and organize meaning, while other categories are excluded from this function. For example, Talmy remarks that many languages mark the number of nouns in a systematic way, but that nouns are not marked in the same way for color. Force Dynamics is considered to be one of the closed-class notional categories, together with such generally recognized categories as number, aspect, mood, and evidentiality.

Aspects of force dynamics have been incorporated into the theoretical frameworks of Mark Johnson (1987), Steven Pinker (1997) and Ray Jackendoff (1990) (see Deane 1996 for a critical review of Jackendoff’s version of Force Dynamics). Force dynamics plays an important role in several recent accounts of modal verbs in various languages (including Brandt 1992, Achard 1996, Boye 2001, and Vandenberghe 2002). Other applications of force dynamics include use in discourse analysis (Talmy 1988, 2000), lexical semantics (Deane 1992, Da Silva 2003) and morphosyntactical analysis (Chun & Zubin 1990, Langacker 1999:352-4).

Expressions can exhibit a force dynamic pattern or can be force-dynamically neutral. A sentence like The door is closed is force-dynamically neutral, because there are no forces opposing each other. The sentence The door cannot open, on the other hand, exhibits a force dynamic pattern: apparently the door has some tendency toward opening, but there is some other force preventing it from being opened (e.g., it may be jammed).

A basic feature of a force-dynamic expression is the presence of two force-exerting elements. Languages make a distinction between these two forces based on their roles. The force entity that is in focus is called the agonist and the force entity opposing it is the Antagonist (see a, figure 1). In the example, the door is the agonist and the force preventing the door from being opened is the Antagonist.

Force entities have an intrinsic force tendency, either toward action or toward rest meat tenderizer papain. For the agonist, this tendency is marked with an arrowhead (action) or with a large dot (rest) (see b, figure 1). Since the antagonist by definition has an opposing tendency, it need not be marked. In the example, the door has a tendency toward action.

A third relevant factor is the balance between the two forces. The forces are out of balance by definition; if the two forces are equally strong, the situation is not interesting from a force-dynamic point of view. One force is therefore stronger or weaker than the other. A stronger force is marked with a plus sign, a weaker force with a minus sign (c, figure 1). In the example, the Antagonist is stronger, since it actually holds back the door.

The outcome of the Force-Dynamic scenario depends on both the intrinsic tendency and the balance between the forces. The result is represented by a line beneath Agonist and Antagonist. The line has an arrowhead if the outcome is action and a large dot if the outcome is rest (d, figure 1). In the example, the door stays closed; the Antagonist succeeds in preventing it from being opened. The sentence ‘The door cannot open’ can be Force-Dynamically represented by the diagram at the top of this page.

Using these basic concepts, several generalizations can be made. The force dynamic situations in which the Agonist is stronger are expressed in sentences like ‘X happened despite Y’, while situations in which the Antagonist is stronger are expressed in the form of ‘X happened because of Y’. In the latter, a form of causation that Talmy termed extended causation is captured.

More possibilities arise when another variable is introduced: change over time. This variable is exemplified by such expressions as A gust of wind made the pages of my book turn. In force dynamic terms, the situation can be described as the entering of an antagonist (the wind) that is stronger in force than the agonist (the pages) and changes the force tendency of the pages from a state of rest to a state of action (turning). In force dynamic diagrams, this motion (‘change over time’) of the Antagonist is represented by an arrow.

The diagrams in Figure 2 to the right combine a shifting antagonist with agonists of varying force tendencies. The following sentences are examples for these patterns:

In this series of scenarios, various kinds of causation are described. Furthermore, a basic relationship between the concepts of ‘causing something to happen’ and ‘letting something happen’ emerges, definable in terms of the balance between the force entities and the resultants of the interaction.

It should be noted that force entities do not have to be physical entities. Force dynamics is directly applicable to terms involving psychological forces like to persuade and to urge. The force dynamic aspect of the sentence Herbie did not succeed in persuading Diana to sing another song can be graphically represented as easily as the earlier example sentence The door cannot open (and, incidentally, by the same diagram).

In addition, force entities do not have to be physically separate. A case in point is reflexive force dynamic constructions of the type Chet was dragging himself instead of walking. It is perfectly possible to represent this in a Force Dynamic diagram (representing Chet’s will as the Agonist keeping the body — the Antagonist — in motion). Thus, even though Chet is one person, his will and his body are conceptualized separately.

The key elements of force dynamics are very basic to human cognition. Deane (1996:56) commented that “[f]rom a cognitive perspective, Talmy’s theory is a striking example of a psychologically plausible theory of causation. Its key elements are such concepts as the (amount of) force exerted by an entity, the balance between two such forces, and the force vector which results from their interaction. Such concepts have an obvious base in ordinary motor activities: the brain must be able to calculate the force vector produced by muscular exertion, and calculate the probable outcome when that force is exerted against an object in the outside world.”

In cognitive linguistic terms, force dynamic expressions reflect a conceptual archetype because of their conceptual basality (Langacker 1999:24). In this view, expressions involving psychological forces reflect an extension of the category of force dynamics from the physical domain to the psychological domain.

From the perspective of lexical semantics, some people have argued that force dynamics fails to be explanatory. For example, Goddard (1998:262–266) raised the objection that “a visual representation cannot — in and of itself — convey a meaning. (…) From a semiotic point of view, a diagram never stands alone; it always depends on a system of verbal captions, whether these are explicit or implied.” He goes on to attack the verbal definition of causation Talmy provides, claiming that it is circular and obscure. Furthermore, Goddard objects to the use of the “semantically obscure concept of force”. However, Goddard’s objections lose some of their strength in light of the fact that Force Dynamics does not present itself as a complete semantic description of the constructions involving Force Dynamic concepts.

Another objection regarding force dynamics is the question, raised by Goddard (1998:81), of how different representational devices are supposed to interact with one another. As the field of cognitive linguistics is still in a state of theoretical flux, no systematic account addresses this issue yet. However, it is an objection many cognitive linguists are aware of. Some cognitive linguists have replied to such objections by pointing out that the goal of Cognitive Linguistics is not to construct a formal system in which theorems are proved, but rather to better understand the cognitive basis of language (cf. Newman 1996:xii).

Jackendoff (1990, 1996:120–3), in the process of incorporating aspects of force dynamics into his theory of conceptual semantics, has proposed a reconfiguration of some of its basic notions. In Jackendoff’s view, this reconfiguration “conforms better to the syntax of force-dynamic verbs” (1996:121).

Paratrechalea julyae

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Nom binominal

Paratrechalea julyae
Silva & Lise in Silva, Lise, Buckup & Brescovit, 2006

Paratrechalea julyae est une espèce d’araignées aranéomorphes de la famille des Trechaleidae.

Cette espèce est endémique du Brésil. Elle se rencontre dans les États de Bahia, de Rio de Janeiro et de São Paulo

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La carapace du mâle holotype mesure 2,90 mm de long sur 2,73 mm de large et l’abdomen 3,25 mm de long.

La femelle décrite par Silva et Lise en 2010 mesure 7,47 mm, sa carapace mesure 3,48 mm de long sur 3 usa soccer guy t shirts,15 mm de large et l’abdomen 3,98 mm de long

Cette espèce est nommée en l’honneur de Juliane Bentes Picanço.

Amiral JC

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Amiral JC, de son vrai nom Mahamane Djadjé Amadou Touré, né le à Niamey, est un rappeur, compositeur, acteur, chanteur, parolier, compositeur et producteur nigérien. Il est membre de NKN, un collectif de rap nigérien, regroupant des rappeurs se produisant au label Kortchop Productions avec Don Julios , Don Alex (Guinée Equatoriale) et Akeem. Il est également un ancien membre du groupe de rap Bagzam avec son partenaire Kader Use. En plus de 10 ans de carrière, Amiral JC a produit 2 albums avec le groupe Bagzam, un album solo en cours d’enregistrement et des singles avec NKN. Surnommé ATT (Artiste Tout Terrain) pour sa polyvalence, son premier concert solo a eu lieu le 10 décembre 2016 dans la grande salle du Palais des Congrès de Niamey.

Mahamane Djadjé Amadou Touré est né le 6 janvier 1986 à Niamey, de parents Songhaï, originaires de Tombouctou (Mali). C’est le fils de Amadou Djadjé Touré, ancien footballeur du Mena (Equipe Nationale du Niger). Ses parents ont divorcé par la suite. Sa mère est actuellement gérante du restaurant de l’École Nationale d’Administration et de Magistrature (ENAM) de Niamey. Amiral JC a fréquenté successivement le jardin d’enfants de Boukoki, l’école primaire Boukoki I et les collèges CEG 15, CEG 11, CEG 6 et le CSP BOMBEY. Après son échec au Brevet d’Études du Premier Cycle (BEPC), Il poursuivit ses études au Centre de Formations Professionnelle et Technique CFPT KOIRA TEGUI où il obtient un Brevet d’Études Professionnelles, BEP option Génie Civil. Il a ensuite abandonné ses études pour se consacrer à sa carrière musicale. Il est de confession musulmane.

Amiral JC voss water glass bottle, anciennement appelé José Calado tire son nom du personnage d’une bande dessinée populaire au Niger. Il embrasse la musique à l’âge de 14 ans. Avec ses potes de quartier Masta, Poutchi, Clentch et Mec Manamane ils créent le groupe Mafia Boys basé au quartier Dar Es Salam ( Dar West Connection). Ensemble ils font une prestation remarquée au premier concert Rap du célèbre animateur Hip Hop Malloum en 2001.

Ensuite il fonde un autre groupe avec ses amis du quartier Recasement, Lam, Soul-mani et Boul-mec. Son style hardcore fait en sorte qu’il se démarque de ses autres coéquipiers. Ce qui lui a valu d’être approché par Kader Use, ex membre du groupe Djoro G. Ensemble ils fondent le Groupe Bagzam.

Bagzam, nom emprunté à une montagne du Nord de l’Aïr dans le Sahara nigérien, est un groupe de rap nigérien qui a vu le jour en 1998. Il a été fondé par Kader Use et Aziz Snack. Leur premier single sort en 2000. Après le départ de Aziz Snack, José Calado rejoint le groupe. Son arrivée dans le groupe a été remarquée dans le Game nigérien à travers un son de clash dirigé vers les plus grosses pointures de rap nigérien du moment. Ils enregistrent 2 albums ensemble : “Honneur” sortie le 3 mai 2005 et “Tchiassé” le 5 juillet 2008.

Du 6 septembre au 8 octobre 2006, Bagzam participe à la Caravane de promotion de la santé au Niger, en compagnie de l’Association des Étudiants de Santé Publique de Bordeaux II (France). Cette caravane a atteint près de la moitié du pays et a concerné les régions de Dosso, tillabéry, Tahoua et Niamey small stainless steel water bottle. Lors de cette caravane les artistes ont fait des prestations dans lesquelles ils sensibilisent les populations pour une meilleure hygiène de vie pour éviter des maladies comme le paludisme.

L’album “Tchiassé” est une œuvre qui dénonce les crimes restés impunis en Afrique, notamment au Niger. Des événements scolaires du 9 février 1990 à l’assassinat du Président Ibrahim Baré Mainassara, les deux rappeurs n’ont rien mis à l’écart. Ils ont su conquérir le public nigérien, mêlant les sonorités traditionnelles et modernes tout en gardant un rythme dansant. Le groupe Bagzam a bâti sa notoriété surtout grâce à la dénonciation des maux quotidiens de la société nigérienne.

En 2003 ils ont organisé 2 concerts à guichet fermé au Centre Culturel Français Nigérien CCFN Jean Rouch de Niamey, exactement les 3 mai et 3 octobre. Le 12 juillet 2005, un autre concert a été organisé à l’occasion du vernissage de l’album Honneur. Le groupe étant en déclin se disloque après leur dernier concert le 30 avril 2009 et la participation à la caravane Hip Hop “Paix, Tolérance et lutte contre la corruption” organisée par l’Ambassade des États-Unis au Niger.

Après plusieurs hésitations et une vie professionnelle bouleversée, Amiral JC a enfin décidé de revenir dans le game après une longue absence. Ce retour peu remarqué s’est fait par une autoproduction intitulée I’m back. Malgré la faible audience de ce son, Amiral JC continue à enregistrer des sons sans succès, Rythme et poésie en featuring avec Irène (ex membre des Crazy Girls), weekend en Afrique et biens d’autres. Il enchaîne les prestations lors des événements scolaires et de grands concert et festivals. En 2012 il enregistre le single Feeling avec Fredo Zo et Bernard, qui fait le tour du pays.

Après la sortie de plusieurs single, Amiral JC a décidé de produire un album intitulé “autour de ma bulle” en signant avec Kortchop Production. Cet album parle de l’artiste et de son expérience personnelle de la vie. Ainsi il met en ligne sa première vidéo “Toujours un vide” en solo le 31 juillet 2015 sur Youtube ce qui marqua l’officialisation de sa carrière nationale et internationale. Cette chanson place l’artiste rapidement en haut d’affiche de l’actualité des musiques urbaines du Niger ce qui lui vaut d’être invité sur la prestigieuse scène du numéro 1 des festivals des musiques urbaines du Niger dénommé Sahel Hip Hop (24 octobre 2015) avec le rappeur sénégalais Nix.

Amiral JC a été sélectionné dans la foulée par la compagnie de téléphonie mobile Orange Niger pour participer au concours “Nuit de la République” organisé chaque année dans le cadre des festivités commémoratives de la Proclamation de la République du Niger du 18 décembre 1958. Il se hisse à la 3e place derrière Kaidan Gaskia et NIF 69-14.

Fort de ce soutien naissant et de la multiplication de ses fans, Amiral JC sort la vidéo “Feeling” produite gratuitement par Elite Média en janvier 2016.

Amiral JC a continué à enchaîner les hits et décida d’organiser un concert le 10 décembre 2016 à la demande de son public. Ce concert organisé par l’artiste lui-même a néanmoins enregistré une faible participation du public. La salle du Palais des Congrès n’a pas pu être remplie malgré tout l’engouement du public autour de l’événement, notamment sur les réseaux sociaux. Le concert avait même été partagé sur le compte Instagram de Didi B des Kiff No Beat (Côte d’Ivoire). Malgré la faible affluence du public ce concert reste tout de même un des grands événements de fin d’année. Ce concert a aussi bénéficié d’une couverture de Canal + avec la présence de ses reporters qui enregistraient l’émission Réussite au compte de Mr Yacine Hassane Diallo, Président Directeur Général de la Société Nigérienne de Sécurité (SNS).

NKN est un collectif de rappeur nigérien produit par Kortchop. NKN littéralement Néwo Kortchop No, signifie Ici c’est Kortchop. Ce collectif est initialement formé par Don Julios ex membre du NCC, Don Alex étudiant équato-guinéen en journalisme à l’IFTIC et Amiral JC. Ils sont par la suite rejoints par Akeem. Leur première vidéo intitulée NKN a été mise en ligne le 25 janvier 2016 sur Youtube. Elle a reçu beaucoup de critique de la part des mélomanes qui trouvent qu’il y a trop d’obscénités. Le collectif a par la suite sortie le son Kinda Go, Zingui Ma Konda, NKN #2, et Zingui Ma Konda (Remix).

Amiral JC surnommé ATT (Artiste Tout Terrain) par ses compères chante dans plusieurs styles. Du hardcore, en passant par la pop, le Reggae meat tenderizing marinade for steak, la Dance Hall, le trap et l’afro il s’adapte à tout type de musique. Bercé par la musique moderne nigérienne des années 1990, il tire son inspiration du reggaeman nigérien Adams Junior. Au début de sa carrière dans les groupes Mafia Boys, Espoir Clan et Bagzam il avait un style plutôt hardcore en utilisant une voix roque. Mis à part ses clashs, il chantait aussi pour la paix, l’amour, il dénonçait les injustices sociales, le détournements de deniers publics, la corruption, le mariage précoce. Il sensibilisait sur le SIDA, le paludisme, l’exploitation des enfants.

Amiral JC jouit d’une grande popularité au sein de la famille rap à cause de son accessibilité et de son grand sens de l’humour. Il entretient de bonnes relations avec les autres rappeurs nigériens. Il a travaillé avec Lee Yo, D2HZ, Don Julios, Don Alex, Akeem, 410 street, Barakina, Irène, Crazy Girls. Il est également proche de Kamikaz Liman, Idi Sarki, Tchatcho, Leyo Razak…

Amiral JC est critiqué par d’autres rappeurs pour sa faiblesse en langue française, ce dernier clamant qu’elle n’est pas sa langue maternelle. L’artiste ne nie pas ses lacunes en français et n’hésite pas à se défendre. D’ailleurs il chante en plusieurs langues : hausa, zerma, rrançais et anglais.

Amiral JC est célibataire et père d’une fille Rakia né le 11/11/2006. Le rappeur vie en famille avec sa mère, ses frères et sœurs au quartier Ryad à Niamey.